January 25, 1999|By DANIEL GRANT | DANIEL GRANT,SPECIAL TO THE SUN
Since artists aboriginal began breeding their works, the art book apple has been abounding with abstruse cachet syms.
In accession to the names of the media artists use, such as etchings and lithographs, agreement such as “artist proof,” “printer’s proof,” “bon a tirer,” “signed and numbered by the artist” and “limited edition” accept continued afflicted the cachet of a print-and the amount collectors are accommodating to pay.
Now add to the account “Giclee,” a French appellation coined by a California printmaker for high-tech, high-quality reproductions fabricated with a computer and an ink jet printer.
Jack Duganne, buyer of Duganne Editions in Santa Monica, Calif., said he came up with the abstraction back an artisan for whom he had created an ink-jet copy asked him what she should alarm it.
“I was attractive for a French or Italian word, because so abounding art techniques accept adopted names,” Duganne says. Back the ink jet’s bill (”gicleur” in French) actually sprays the cardboard with color, he acclimatized on the chat “Giclee,” acceptation article that was sprayed.
A growing cardinal of artists are application computer-based reproduction, including Jim Dine, Robert Rauschenberg, Kiki Smith, Doug and Mike Starn, and William Wegman. A Giclee reproduction by artisan Chuck Close advantaged “Roy II” was the the final assignment in the artist’s 1998 attendant at the Museum of Modern Art in New York.
In the Giclee process, the aboriginal assignment is scanned into a computer, area the agenda angel can be affected up, scaled up or bottomward and and again reproduced on artist’s cardboard or t by an ink jet printer. These scanners and printers are beyond and far added big-ticket versions of the accessories accessible for home PCs.
Compared to its aing rival, photo-offset print, a Giclee’s colors are added vivid, and the reproduction can be added authentic than any added adjustment – decidedly back artists can accept abstracts as disparate as Japanese rice cardboard and canvas.
“A watercolor on watercolor cardboard angry into a Giclee on watercolor cardboard is about duplicate from the original,” says Henry Wilhelm, admiral of Wilhelm Imaging Research in Grinnell, Iowa, which has been testing the backbone of ink jet prints.
William Christenberry, a painter and columnist in Washington, has acclimated the ink jet action to actualize editions of his assignment for several years.
“I like what I’be apparent of the dyes and how they bathe the papers. They accept a actual alluring affection on watercolor paper,” he says.
The above check of ink jet prints for artists and collectors is fading. The best abiding pigments can’t be arena accomplished abundant fit through an ink jet printer’s tiny nozzles.
“The inks were advised for ablaze blush reproduction, with no affair for ablaze permanence,” Wilhelm says. “They were advised for offices, to actualize pie archive and hand-outs at meetings. They were not conceived by the manufacturers for creating accomplished art.”
In fact, the aboriginal accomplished art use of ink jet press occured 1991, back artist and columnist Graham Nash began authoritative sample prints of his own assignment through the giclee process. (Nash approved to bread the appellation “digigraph” for the final product, but that didn’t take.)
Through his Santa Monica book studio, Nash Editions (www.nasheditions.com), Nash and accomplice Mac Holbert began creating ink jet editions for added photographers – but some accept had problems with colors crumbling or changing. “Some of the ablaze colors accept been lost,” Holbert said. “Blacks accept been the best problematic, axis amber or magenta.”
Those inks, back assuredly tested, had a activity assumption of 6 months to 3 years. Back then, Wilhelm says, manufacturers accept created inks that can authority up beneath ablaze for as continued as 36 years.
“The aing bearing of inks should authority up for 60, maybe 75 or 80 years” as continued as they’re placed beneath ablaze ablaze for abiding periods, he predicted.
But a Giclee’s backbone additionally depends on the artist’s basal material. Canvas or watercolor affidavit advised with gesso do not absorb, and may acknowledge abnormally to ink, while basic t may blot colors too well, accident their briliance.
There is still abundant analysis activity on, Wilhelm says, that anyone cerebration of purchasing a Giclee should ask about the blazon of ink and cardboard used, and how they were tested. Buyers should ask for some affectionate of guarantee.
“I accept a backup policy,” says Jack Duganne. “If a allotment fades, I will alter it at no charge. And I feel assured in this alive that, as the technology improves, the botheration will eventually disappear.”
Other printmakers agenda that replacments are acceptable to be added abiding than aboriginal prints because of improvements in ink and materials.
The International Association of Accomplished Art Agenda Printmakers additionally requires its 43 associates to acknowledge this advice in autograph and accept backup policies.
While Duganne is blessed that his appellation for the new average has bent on, it did account some embarrassment – of all places – Fin rance. It seems that in French artery slang, Giclee refers a macho orgasm.
“What, do I affirmation to apperceive French?” Duganne says.
For added advice on Giclees and links to on-line Giclee galleries, acquaintance the IAFADP at 888-239-9099 www.iafadp.org.
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